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Two samples for which only gag or nef was typed, these were classified as belonging to CRF11_cpx. Notably, despite subtypes B and C collectively accounting for approximately 75 infections worldwide [16], none of our sequences were classified as belonging to either of these clades. In 10/46 samples from which both nef and gag sequences were analysed, they were classified as belonging to different
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Two samples for which only gag or nef was typed, these were classified as belonging to CRF11_cpx. Notably, despite subtypes B and C collectively accounting for approximately 75 infections worldwide [16], none of our sequences were classified as belonging to either of these clades. In 10/46 samples from which both nef and gag sequences were analysed, they were classified as belonging to different
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Issecting the earliest evolutionary steps in the emergence of HIV-1M. Keywords: HIV-1 diversity, West central Africa, RDP3, Maximum likelihood, PHYMLFindings The Congo basin in west central Africa is thought to be the origin of HIV, where several cross-species transmission events from chimpanzees to humans occurred [1,2]. Cameroon, located in this region, has one of the most genetically diverse HI
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A CRF02_AGa CRF02_AGa CRF02_AGaCRF02_AG CRF22_01A1 CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF36_cpxb/F2b CRF02_AG NDc CRF02_AG CRF02_AG ND NDc cCRF02_AG CRF01_AE CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF01/F CRF02_AG A-likeb CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF01_AE CRF02_AG NDc CRF02_AGNDc CRF02_AG A1 A1 F G A1 CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF37_cpx F CRF01_AE CRF37_cpx Ub DCRF02_AGa CRF02_AG URF A1 URF G URF
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Ormation were obtained. RNA was extracted from plasma samples, reverse transcribed and PCR amplified as described previously [12] using subtype non-specific HIV-1 primers for HIV-1 full length gag [12] and nef [13] genes, and sequenced. Sequenced fragments were assembled using ChromasPro. Full length gag and nef sequences were generated and aligned using MUSCLE with manual editing in MEGA5, togeth
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D increases permeability of small blood vessels and smooth muscle contraction. In macrophages, eosinophiles, and neutrophils anaphylatoxins can induce oxidative burst, basophiles, and mast cells release histamine, and C3a can enhance the effect of other proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-6, and SDF-1. While the mechanism for the many reactions precipitated by complement anaphylatoxins has n
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Ibution of HIV-1 in CameroonSample ID BS01 BS02 BS03 BS04 BS05 BS06 BS09 BS10 BS11 BS12 BS13 BS14 BS16 BS18 BS19 BS20 BS21 BS22 BS23 BS24 BS25 BS26 BS27 BS29 BS30 BS31 BS32 BS35 BS38 BS39 BS40 BS42 BS43 BS44 BS45 BS46 BS47 BS48 BS49 BS50 BS51 BS53 BS54 BS55 gag gene CRF02_AG A-like G G CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG A1 CRF02_AG G CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG NDc CRF02_AG NDc CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG C