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Patients for individualized clinical decision-making would fill an unmet clinical need. Activating somatic KRAS mutations are nearly omnipresent and a hallmark in the genetic make-up of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) [5]. While KRAS mutations themselves have been associated as prognostic markers, there is considerable and significant heterogeneity in the activation states of the downstrea
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AdeQuadri et al. BMC Cancer (2017) 17:Page 6 ofFig. 5 a Comparison of CNKSR1 expression of study cohort and secondary validation cohort. b Cellular distribution pattern of CNKSR1 showed primarily cytoplasmic expression in pancreatic cancer specimens. Nuclear staining of CNKSR1 was not associated with cytoplasmic CNKSR1 expression levels (0, 1+ vs 2+, 3+; p = 0.22; chi square test, 2-tailed)tumors
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Ics, tumor characteristics, and treatment by CNKSR1 expression statusCNKSR1 Low (N = 34) Age group
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For the 34 CNKSR1 low cases (logrank test, p = 0.03). Table 3 presents the unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios for pancreatic cancer cases by CNKSR1 expression status. In the unadjusted model, cases with CNKSR1 low tumors had an increased risk of death compared to those with CNKSR1 high tumors with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.61 (95 CI: 1.06 to 2.46). In a model that adjusted for resection, TNM st
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On problem with IRES vectors ?inability to transcribe the transcript following the IRES sequence if the first MCS is empty. The new pIRES2-acGFP1acGFP1 vector was used as a control for the pIRES2Gal1-acGFP1 construct. Both vectors were sequenced through their multiple cloning sites to ensure no PCRinduced mutations were present.Transfection and stable clone generationParental, control, and galecti
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Few of our U87 galectin1 clones. Parental U87MG cells, along with galectin-1 and acGFP-only clones were injected into the right caudate/putamen complex of nude mice. Tumors overexpressing galectin-1 shortened survival of their hosts compared to their parental counterparts (Figure 5). A few animals (7/20) bearing tumors expressing acGFP alone eventually exhibited neurological symptoms. The examinat
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Ed to their corresponding extraction buffer reservoirs. The column-based PicoPure RNA isolation kit (Arcturus, Mountain View, CA) was used to extract RNA from collected cells per manufacturer instructions.Toussaint et al. Molecular Cancer 2012, 11:32 http://www.molecular-cancer.com/content/11/1/Page 3 ofFigure 1 Three geographic tumor regions targeted for RNA isolation. Using laser-capture microdi
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Ained parallel sections with a pooled IgG control. This protein-level confirmation of our microarray data gave us the impetus to pursue functional in vitro and in vivo assays with galectin-1 over-expressing GBM cells.Extracellular matrix attachmentResultsIdentification of galectin-1 as a potential mediator of glioma invasionThe quantity of RNA obtained from various xenograft tumors was highly vari